Mount Everest Height, Location, Map, Facts, climbing mount everest articles Climbers, & Deaths Britannica
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Mount Everest Height, Location, Map, Facts, climbing mount everest articles Climbers, & Deaths Britannica
Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The Himalayan ranges were thrust upward by tectonic action as the Indian-Australian Plate moved northward from the south and was subducted under the Eurasian Plate following the collision of the two plates between about 40 and 50 million years ago. The Himalayas themselves started rising about 25 to 30 million years ago, and the Great Himalayas began to take their present form during the Pleistocene Epoch . Everest and its surrounding peaks are part of a large mountain massif that forms a focal point, or knot, of this tectonic action in the Great Himalayas. Information from global positioning instruments in place on Everest since the late 1990s indicates that the mountain continues to move a few inches to the northeast and rise a fraction of an inch each year. Like other high peaks in the region, Mount Everest has long been revered by local peoples. Its most common Tibetan name, Chomolungma, means “Goddess Mother of the World” or “Goddess of the Valley.” The Sanskrit name Sagarmatha means literally “Peak of Heaven.” Its identity as the highest point on the Earth’s surface was not recognized, however, until 1852, when the governmental Survey of India established that fact. In 1865 the mountain—previously referred to as Peak XV—was renamed for Sir George Everest , British surveyor general of India from 1830 to 1843. Mount Everest , Sanskrit and Nepali Sagarmatha , Tibetan Chomolungma , Chinese Zhumulangma Feng or Chu-mu-lang-ma Feng , also spelled Qomolangma Feng , mountain on the crest of the Great Himalayas of southern Asia that lies on the border between Nepal and the Tibet Autonomous Region of China , at 27°59′ N 86°56′ E. Reaching an elevation of 29,032 feet , Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. The summit of Everest itself is covered by rock-hard snow surmounted by a layer of softer snow that fluctuates annually by some 5–20 feet ; the snow level is highest in September, after the monsoon, and lowest in May after having been depleted by the strong northwesterly winter winds. The summit and upper slopes sit so high in the Earth’s atmosphere that the amount of breathable oxygen there is one-third what it is at sea level . Lack of oxygen, powerful winds, and extremely cold temperatures preclude the development of any plant or animal life there. Everest is shaped like a three-sided pyramid . The three generally flat planes constituting the sides are called faces, and the line by which two faces join is known as a ridge. The North Face rises above Tibet and is bounded by the North Ridge and the West Ridge; key features of this side of the mountain include the Great and Hornbein couloirs and the North Col at the start of the North Ridge. The Southwest Face rises above Nepal and is bounded by the West Ridge and the Southeast Ridge; notable features on this side include the South Col and the Khumbu Icefall, the latter a jumble of large blocks of ice that has long been a daunting challenge for climbers. The East Face—or Kangshung Face—also rises above Tibet and is bounded by the Southeast Ridge and the Northeast Ridge. The mountain’s drainage pattern radiates to the southwest, north, and east. The Khumbu Glacier melts into the Lobujya River of Nepal, which flows southward as the Imja River to its confluence with the Dudh Kosi River . In Tibet the Rong River originates from the Pumori and Rongbuk glaciers and the Kama River from the Kangshung Glacier: both flow into the Arun River, which cuts through the Himalayas into Nepal. The Rong, Dudh Kosi, and Kama river valleys form, respectively, the northern, climbing mount everest articles southern, and eastern access routes to the summit. Mount Everest Height, Location, Map, Facts, climbing mount everest articles Climbers, & Deaths BritannicaMount Everest Height, Location, Map, Facts, climbing mount everest articles Climbers, & Deaths Britannica There is disagreement over the exact elevation of Mount Everest because of variations in snow level, gravity deviation, and light refraction, among other factors. However, in 2020 China and Nepal jointly declared Mount Everest's elevation to be 29,031.69 feet , which was subsequently widely accepted. Glaciers cover the slopes of Everest to its base. Individual glaciers flanking the mountain are the Kangshung Glacier to the east; the East, Central, and West Rongbuk glaciers to the north and northwest; the Pumori Glacier to the northwest; and the Khumbu Glacier to the west and south, which is fed by the glacier bed of the Western Cwm, an enclosed valley of ice between Everest and the Lhotse-Nuptse Ridge to the south. Glacial action has been the primary force behind the heavy and continuous erosion of Everest and the other high Himalayan peaks. Mount Everest has long been revered by local peoples. Its most common Tibetan name, Chomolungma, means “Goddess Mother of the World” or “Goddess of the Valley.” The Sanskrit name Sagarmatha means literally “Peak of Heaven.” Mount Everest was also previously referred to as Peak XV; it was renamed for Sir George Everest in 1865. Reinhold Messner completed the first solo ascent of Mount Everest in 1980. The barren Southeast, Northeast, and West ridges culminate in the Everest summit; a short distance away is the South Summit, a minor bump on the Southeast Ridge with an elevation of 28,700 feet . The mountain can be seen directly from its northeastern side, where it rises about 12,000 feet above the Plateau of Tibet . The peak of Changtse rises to the north. Khumbutse , Nuptse , and Lhotse surround Everest’s base to the west and south. The climate of Everest is always hostile to living things. The warmest average daytime temperature is only about −2 °F on the summit; in January , the coldest month, summit temperatures average −33 °F and can drop as low as −76 °F . Storms can come up suddenly, and temperatures can plummet unexpectedly. The peak of Everest is so high that it reaches the lower limit of the jet stream , and it can be buffeted by sustained winds of more than 100 miles per hour. Precipitation falls as snow during the summer monsoon . The risk of frostbite to climbers on Everest is extremely high. The first woman to summit Everest was the Japanese climber Tabei Junko, who reached the top from the South Col in 1975. She was climbing with the first all-women expedition to Everest . Everest is composed of multiple layers of rock folded back on themselves . Rock on the lower elevations of the mountain consists of metamorphic schists and gneisses, topped by igneous granites. Higher up are found sedimentary rocks of marine origin . stair climbing articles in hindi